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With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study. Yet scholars who know how the shapes of Hebrew letters changed over the centuries assure us that the letter shapes fit right in with that century. The same argument supports the authenticity of the Mesha Inscription, in which one can confidently identify the biblical Omri, king of the northern kingdom of Israel, and the biblical aMesha, king of Moab. The seal of Jezebel appeared on the antiquities market and was published in , long after correct Phoenician letter shapes were known She was a Sidonian princess who married Ahab, king of Israel.
Therefore, a forger could easily have used the correct letter shapes. Also, since the letters that spell the name, YZBL, are inserted among the artistic decorations that fill most of the face of the seal, their odd placement makes the seal seem possibly to be a fake. Nahman Avigad, who published the seal of Jezebel, was arguably the dean of Hebrew epigraphy the study of inscriptions.
The four Phoenician characters are widely dispersed among the emblems. The vertical stroke of the third letter converges, for want of space, with the border line of the seal. There is, of course, no basis for identifying the owner of our seal with this famous lady, although they may have been contemporaries, and the seal seems worthy of a queen.
I arrived at the list of 50 persons above with the intention of composing a nucleus of strong identifications that would stand the test of time. Clearly, I could not use the seal of Jezebel which could be a forgery or a fake. Other reasons for not making the identification between the Jezebel of the seal and Jezebel, Queen of Israel, appear in Christopher A.
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See the comments of A. In addition, I have talked with Helene Sader and she has stated that she is not aware of any epigraphic Phoenician seal or bulla that has been found in a 9th century context in Lebanon. The earliest provenanced Aramaic epigraphic glyptics are arguably the Hamat materials so Alan Millard, and I concur. See Sass-Avigad for a discussion of the literature. Sorry for such a long post, Robin, but your question is important, and the issues take a bit of explanation. In response to post 47 by Sarah: The evidence from outside the New Testament for the existence of Jesus of Nazareth is briefly mentioned above in posts 8, 9, 20, 30, and There is also the evidence of the four first-century Gospels and the beginnings, within first-century Judaism, of the faith now called Christianity.
For some, the fact that pagan, Jewish, and Muslim writings attest to his existence independently of each other is enough evidence. For others, it seems difficult to estimate how much evidence and what kind of evidence would be reason enough for them to accept his existence. If you are willing to explore the evidences, perhaps you will be able to reach a conclusion that is both well grounded and satisfying to you.
A consultation with a local librarian could be quite helpful, especially using the Library of Congress subject heading: Bible. Gospels — Evidences, authority, etc. Joseph does not appear in the Gospels after Jesus began his public ministry at around age 30, and many scholars reasonably suppose that he had died by then. If so, when he died, he was an obscure carpenter. Even if his grave were unearthed, perhaps in the vicinity of Nazareth, especially after the ravages of time, it might not be labeled sufficiently to identify whose grave it was.
The question regarding the graves of Mary and Joseph is a bit like asking why certain shipwrecks have not been found. Perhaps there has not been enough searching in the right locations, etc. Scholars of the New Testament, especially Catholic and Orthodox scholars, might be able to shed more light on this question than I can. Best wishes, Lawrence Mykytiuk. In response to comment 46 by Gene R. I plan to research Marduka. I agree that Kurt brought out some interesting points about the book of Esther. I note that all 50 of the historical figures mentioned are men.
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A BAR article about her signet seal written by M. I look forward to hearing from you. I note that the existence of Jesus has not yet been proven. You would think that this would be the most important personage to be proven.
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Why has evidence of Jesus not been found yet? Why has the tomb of Mary not been found yet, why has the tomb of Joseph not been found yet? Lawrence, regarding your request of Kurt in his comment 17, regarding a certain Marduka : Apparently, a cuneiform inscription evidently from Borsippa is said to refer to a Persian official by that name Mordecai?
The information appears to be from a German publication entitled get ready! In response to comment 44 by Michael F. I have discussed this inscription at length on pp. If two inscriptions and indeed a third from Egypt are not sufficient, I find no particular need to discount the entirely of the biblical record of David.
Lawrence, all you or anyone else has stated as solid archeological evidence for David has come in the David stone.
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I understand people make a lot of weak textual assumptions based on what they want to believe, but all I ask is there one other stone that shows he existed? If there is no other hard evidence, just say so. One stone does not make an empire. In response to comment 42 by Michael F. I cannot do your homework for you. Many libraries, including many public libraries, can get the book for you through interlibrary loan. This page is about the 50 identifications of biblical people in inscriptions of the biblical era—why these, why not others, etc. Beyond that, I defer to the entirety of the comment 35 by Uri.
Lawrence Mykytiuk Purdue University.
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I waited a week for my inquiry to appear in the comments section which you can access here. It appears that my input is not worthy of being posted, much less commented […]. Could you give me the highlights?
It sounds like pseudo-science making a case for Atlantis. He is mostly a fictional character created in the Bronze Age. An Iron Age David is anachronistic. The main problem with OT scholarship is they rely too heavily on Wellhausen or unified text. They have yet to come up the old base text creation to crowning of Solomon. Posted in Other News on March 5, Bookmark the […].
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