Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water


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VOCs—Vapors in the Air, Dissolved in Groundwater

With the exception of sulfate see footnote 6 , the CCL includes contaminants that are not currently subject to any proposed or promulgated primary drinking water regulation, but are known or anticipated to occur in public water systems and may require regulation under the SDWA EPA, a. Thus, the CCL is intended to be the primary source of priority contaminants for future regulatory actions by EPA's drinking water program until the next CCL is published in Figure 1—1 summarizes the current time line for the development, promulgation, and implementation of the CCL and future CCLs and two other related programs required under the amended SDWA that are described later in this chapter.

Current time line and interaction of selected major regulatory requirements of the SDWA Amendments of As noted by EPA, sufficient data are necessary to analyze the extent of exposure and risk to populations particularly for vulnerable subpopulations such as infants and immuno-compromised persons as mandated by the amended SDWA via drinking water in order to determine appropriate regulatory action EPA, a, b.

If sufficient data are not available, additional data must be obtained before any meaningful assessment can be made for a specific contaminant. In this regard, a table listing several categories of preliminary data needs for all chemicals on the draft CCL EPA, a was expanded to include the microorganisms on the final CCL.

All CCL contaminants are currently divided into one or more of these categories see Figure 1—2 and Table 1—3 , which are used to help set priorities for EPA's drinking water program. It is important to note that there has been periodic reassignment of contaminants into and out of these categories since publication of the draft CCL as additional data have been obtained and evaluated. Thus, the contaminants in this next-step category will be used to select five or more contaminants for which EPA will make a determination to regulate or not by August This category also includes those contaminants sodium and Acanthamoeba for which EPA intends to develop nonenforceable guidance rather than drinking water regulations.

At present, only those contaminants in the regulation determination priorities category that ultimately receive a decision to be regulated, not regulated, or issued a health advisory will be removed entirely from the CCL process i. The CCL and next step categories as of June As noted previously by the committee NRC, a , the first CCL began as an essentially unranked list of research needs for drinking water contaminants. Additional research and monitoring must be conducted for many, if not most, of the contaminants on the current CCL as indicated in Table 1—3 EPA, b.

Thus, EPA faces a daunting task in assessing the available scientific information about CCL contaminant risks and, based on that assessment, making a risk management decision about which contaminants should be moved off one of the research lists and into regulatory action.

Since its publication in March , however, EPA has made progress in setting an overall CCL research strategy and schedule through its Office of Research and Development ORD which has the overall responsibility for shaping and guiding the agency's research agenda. More specifically, this research is intended to identify the scientific and engineering data needed and to characterize the risks posed by CCL contaminants.

It is beyond the scope of this report to describe the CCL research strategy in great detail. What analytical methods are needed to adequately address occurrence, exposure, health effects, and treatability issues? What are the occurrence and exposure issues associated with CCL contaminants in source water, finished water, and drinking water distribution systems?

Our tap water quality is at a tipping point – The Denver Post

Are there significant health risks associated with exposure to CCL contaminants? How effective are candidate treatment technologies for controlling CCL contaminants?


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Phase I is a screening level effort in which the CCL contaminants are evaluated with regard to available methods, health risk, and treatment information. This screening process involves the examination of minimum data sets that can be used to determine if a contaminant should be moved into the regulatory determination priorities category of the CCL or moved into Phase II. In Phase II, a more in-depth examination is conducted to determine whether the contaminant should be recommended for regulation, guidance should be developed, or a recommendation not to regulate should be made.

In general, Phase II research involves the generation of a comprehensive database for each CCL contaminant on its health effects, analytical methods, occurrence, exposure, and treatment options.

Setting Priorities for Drinking Water Contaminants.

Because of the complexity of the CCL research process and the need to integrate ORD's efforts, an Implementation Team comprised of researchers and managers from ORD's laboratories and centers as well as representatives from OW will be established. The team will be responsible for providing oversight and coordinating the CCL research process while balancing the agency's resource commitments against the requirements of the CCL process. In addition, several expert workshops that helped in developing the CCL itself were used to help identify research needs for specific contaminants.

Representatives attended the meeting from the water utility industry, state and federal health and regulatory agencies, professional associations, academia, and public interest groups, and recommendations and results from the meeting were incorporated into the CCL Research Plan. Recommendations from that panel were utilized in developing the two-phased research approach outlined in the CCL Research Plan report. Implementation of the CCL Research Plan will require the coordinated efforts of both government and nongovernment entities, as did its creation EPA, b.


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  • In this regard, EPA intends to make all aspects of CCL research planning, implementation, and communication a collaborative process through a series of public workshops and stakeholder meetings held periodically over the next few years. Several public commenters on the draft CCL also noted the need for a more systematic and scientifically defensible approach to selecting contaminants for future CCLs EPA, c. The committee's second report NRC, b briefly described some limitations of the first CCL development process before presenting its recommended conceptual approach to the development of future CCLs.

    Chapter 2 of this report more fully describes these and other limitations, especially as related to various sociopolitical issues surrounding the development of future CCLs. Partly due to these limitations, the committee recommended in its second report NRC, b that a new type of screening process be used to identify and evaluate a broader universe of microbiological, chemical, and other types of potential drinking water contaminants in order to provide a more objective list of contaminants of concern.

    The NCOD stores data on the occurrence of both regulated and unregulated drinking water contaminants. It is intended to support EPA efforts in the identification and selection of contaminants for placement on future CCLs; subsequent and related research, monitoring, and regulatory activities; and the periodic six-year review of existing drinking water regulations for possible modification as required under the amended SDWA EPA, g.

    An additional purpose is to inform the public about contaminants detected in drinking water and make available the data sets that help form the primary basis for EPA's drinking water-related regulatory and research actions. The first release of the NCOD became operational in August as mandated and included occurrence data on various physical, chemical, microbial, and radiological contaminants found in public water systems and ambient source water EPA, g.

    The second release of NCOD became operational in late August and included several changes intended to increase its functionality. In brief, the public right-to-know query allows a user to query the database for a specific contaminant in specific political jurisdictions i. Last, the regulation revision query also still under construction will allow users to view summary data and to download a data set that could be used in the periodic revision of existing NPDWRs as required under the amended SDWA.

    The new program includes 1 development of a new list of UCMR contaminants every five years; 2 a representative sample of small public water systems serving 10, persons or fewer to conduct the monitoring in addition to all large systems ; 3 placement of the monitoring data in the NCOD; and 4 notification of consumers that monitoring results are publicly available. These 26 chemical and 8 microbiological contaminants 9 were then evaluated primarily for the analytical methods and the level of information available for them at the time of development of the UCMR List see Table 1—4 for a current alphabetical listing.

    Based on these evaluations, EPA developed a three-tier monitoring approach that allows assessment monitoring to start promptly for contaminants with approved analytical methods UCMR List 1 , while accommodating the need to delay implementation for contaminants requiring further refinement of analytical methods to initiate screening survey monitoring UCMR List 2 and those that need method development for prescreen testing UCMR List 3 EPA, c,f,g.

    Coliform Bacteria Analysis

    In summary, List 1 contains 12 chemical contaminants that require monitoring for one continuous year between and at all 2, large PWSs serving more than 10, persons and at a representative national sample of out of 66, small systems serving 10, or fewer persons EPA, f,g. However, EPA recently revised List 2 and published proposed analytical methods and monitoring requirements for 14 13 chemicals and 1 microorganism of its now 16 contaminants see Table 1—4 ; EPA, j.

    More specifically, EPA is proposing to require screening survey monitoring for these 13 chemical contaminants at randomly selected small systems with the small systems doing the sampling and EPA conducting the testing and reporting beginning in January A total of randomly selected large systems would begin List 2 chemical monitoring in January A second delayed screening survey for Aeromonas will be performed in by other small systems and other large systems.

    What are the occurrence and exposure issues associated with CCL contaminants in source water, finished water, and drinking water distribution systems? Are there significant health risks associated with exposure to CCL contaminants? How effective are candidate treatment technologies for controlling CCL contaminants?

    Phase I is a screening level effort in which the CCL contaminants are evaluated with regard to available methods, health risk, and treatment information. This screening process involves the examination of minimum data sets that can be used to determine if a contaminant should be moved into the regulatory determination priorities category of the CCL or moved into Phase II. In Phase II, a more in-depth examination is conducted to determine whether the contaminant should be recommended for regulation, guidance should be developed, or a recommendation not to regulate should be made.

    In general, Phase II research involves the generation of a comprehensive database for each CCL contaminant on its health effects, analytical methods, occurrence, exposure, and treatment options. In addition, several expert workshops that helped in developing the CCL itself were used to help identify research needs for specific contaminants.

    The Drinking Water Handbook

    Representatives attended the meeting from the water utility industry, state and federal health and regulatory agencies, professional associations, academia, and public interest groups, and recommendations and results from the meeting were incorporated into the CCL Research Plan. Recommendations from that panel were utilized in developing the two-phased research approach outlined in the CCL Research Plan report. Implementation of the CCL Research Plan will require the coordinated efforts of both government and nongovernment entities, as did its creation EPA, b.

    In this regard, EPA intends to make all aspects of CCL research planning, implementation, and communication a collaborative process through a series of public workshops and stakeholder meetings held periodically over the next few years. Several public commenters on the draft CCL also noted the need for a more systematic and scientifically defensible approach to selecting contaminants for future CCLs EPA, c. Chapter 2 of this report more fully describes these and other limitations, especially as related to various sociopolitical issues surrounding the development of future CCLs.

    Partly due to these limitations, the committee recommended in its second report NRC, b that a new type of screening process be used to identify and evaluate a broader universe of microbiological, chemical, and other types of potential drinking water contaminants in order to provide a more objective list of contaminants of concern. The NCOD stores data on the occurrence of both regulated and unregulated drinking water contaminants.

    Language selection

    It is intended to support EPA efforts in the identification and selection of contaminants for placement on future CCLs; subsequent and related research, monitoring, and regulatory activities; and the periodic six-year review of existing drinking water regulations for possible modification as required under the amended SDWA EPA, g. EPA requested input from the. The first release of the NCOD became operational in August as mandated and included occurrence data on various physical, chemical, microbial, and radiological contaminants found in public water systems and ambient source water EPA, g.

    The second release of NCOD became operational in late August and included several changes intended to increase its functionality. In brief, the public right-to-know query allows a user to query the database for a specific contaminant in specific political jurisdictions i. Last, the regulation revision query also still under construction will allow users to view summary data and to download a data set that could be used in the periodic revision of existing NPDWRs as required under the amended SDWA. The NCOD does not contain occurrence data from every public water system or from every state.


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    • However, not all states and territories, or PWSs within states and territories, have reported data for either type of contaminant data as yet. Furthermore, the historical data goes back only to However, detections do not necessarily mean that the contaminant would be found at the tap. Ambient occurrence data are provided to identify presence in a watershed; however, contaminant occurrence in the ambient data does not imply that the contaminant is also present in a nearby PWS.

      Although the NCOD data sets will be updated over time, they may still reflect a lag time of at least six months from data provided directly from a PWS.

      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water
      Handbook of CCL Microbes in Drinking Water

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