Also, only few of these compounds have the potential to be therapeutic against cancer. This work describes the advance rise regarding the capacity of biocompounds to trigger or re-establish the antioxidant capacity or blocking oncogenes that participate in HeLa cancer cells. Cervical cancer CC is a principal cause of death in women in the whole world [ 9 , 11 , 13 ]. Prior reports indicated this cancer contributed with approximately , new cases and produced between , and , deaths in [ 9 , 11 , 13 , 14 , 15 ].
Marine Derived Bioactive Compounds for Breast and Prostate Cancer Treatment: A Review
However, is clear that Hispanic women have a high incidence of cervical cancer and a significant death rate than other women in the world [ 16 , 17 ]. The described above probably is due to the interaction between genetic factors of the population, geographic locations and environment exposures [ 18 , 19 ]. In general, the susceptibility to the pathogens as human papillomaviruses HPV , lifestyle and cultural factors and inadequate medical system contribute to the development of cervical cancer [ 17 , 18 , 19 ].
Current information noticed that almost serotypes of HPV exist. But, 2 of these, 16 and 18 serotypes, are related to the development of cervical cancer in Latin women [ 14 , 17 ]. During cervical carcinogenesis, a viral protein E6 sequesters to p53 protein. Also, another viral protein called E7 participates in the same process, sequestering Rb protein. In consequence, the arrest of both proteins p53 and Rb induces deregulation in the cell cycle.
However, possibly the HPV is not an exclusive aetiology agent that produces this disease.
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Further information noticed that sex steroid hormone participates in the early stages of cervical carcinogenesis [ 14 ]. Perhaps, our knowledge about the risk factors that derive from the developed cancer will be increasing but also is necessary to improve our awareness of the prevention and treatment of disease. Currently, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy and surgery are the treatments majority employed in the early stages of CC [ 10 , 20 , 21 ].
Bioactive Compounds and Cancer
But, the treatments above mentioned often are associated with certain disadvantages, such as toxicity of chemical agent or drug resistance [ 22 ]. For example, cisplatin in combination with bevacizumab can increase the expectations of survival, but they are scarce to the population. In another case, paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent used against ovarian carcinoma, but there is evidence of the resistance for this agent [ 11 ]. Also, the use of chemotherapy represents other drawbacks, the undesirable effects, the high cost of treatment and recurrence among patients who had improved [ 10 , 20 ].
All of these adverse effects are due to the lack of a specific target cancer cell, because chemotherapeutics do not have a cancer-specific receptor, protein or DNA [ 20 ]. Another limit, in Mexico, there is one radiotherapy machine available for 2 million Mexican. But, reducing the doses of the chemical agent or employing natural compounds can overcome this significant barrier that exists to eliminate CC [ 11 ].
Natural or bioactive compounds are used against multiple illnesses including rheumatic, anthelmintic, diuretic, hypoglycaemia and cancer [ 23 ]. The diseases above mentioned, including CC, could produce free radicals that induce damage to the cells, tissues and organs [ 12 ]. ROS controls both physiological and pathological process related to cell proliferation, invasion cell, and tumour hypoxia and drug resistance [ 11 , 12 , 26 , 27 ]. Also, in the cell, a defence system against ROS includes several enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase [ 28 ].
However, when the cellular antioxidant systems are damaged, antioxidants are insufficient to neutralise ROS, and then oxidative stress occurs [ 27 , 29 ]. Moreover, in a pathological process, ROS are responsible for damaging proteins, lipids and nucleic acids [ 29 , 30 ]. Nonetheless, bioactive compounds are strongly linked to the radical scavenging capacity and protect the cell against oxidative DNA damage [ 12 , 25 , 31 ].
The plants, fruits and vegetable contain large amounts of bioactive compounds that act as antioxidant, and they can be used with therapeutic purpose [ 27 , 32 , 33 ]. Among antioxidants, different subclasses are described, a flavonoids, b phenolic acids and polyphenols, c stilbenoids, d catechins and e tannins, and they are abundant and available in natural products previously mentioned [ 20 , 31 , 34 ]. Other compounds related with their oxidant capacity and ROS productions are listed in Table 1. For example, galangin is a flavonoid with various biological effects in different cancer cells [ 25 ].
Additionally, fucoidan is a major bioactive compound in Sargassum polycystum and demonstrated anti-proliferation, antitumor and anticancer properties [ 13 ]. Moreover, pterostilbene can be found in berries and grapes and showed therapeutic effects in a variety of cancer types [ 36 ]. Other biocompounds such as triptolide, celastrol and tripchlorolide were isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii ; these compounds are immunosuppressive and anticancer [ 37 ].
Gallic acid is a natural phenolic compound with the potential to act against different cancers or viruses [ 38 ]. Further information, extracts from Annona muricata leaves were shown to have the capacity to induce apoptosis in HeLa cells, suggesting that the extracts have the potential to be used as a treatment against virus-induced cancer cells [ 39 ]. Also, this compound can be used in combination with a chemotherapeutic agent to increase the efficiency of chemotherapy [ 11 ]. List of phenolic compounds.
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Antioxidant properties can be risen with phenolic compounds described here. However, possible signalling pathways, apoptotic or inflammation, can be affected by this kind of compounds. Also, the genus Annona has been shown to have promising compounds, called Annonaceous acetogenins AGEs , that can be utilised in the treatment of cancer because they induce cell cytotoxicity by inhibiting the mitochondrial complex I, and their capacity of acetogenins to inhibit NADH oxidase was also shown to be important for their antitumour function [ 40 , 41 ].
However, the biological activities of the compounds obtained from Annona species are diverse. For example, the crude extract of A. Many studies have described, or continuous screening the anticancer bioactive compounds, and explained the potential of plants against illness [ 25 ]. Though, the success of the prevention or treatment depends on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds. But, the biological effects and mechanisms of action of flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenoids and tannins have been studied lightly.
Antioxidant capacities describe the biological mechanism of bioactive compounds and how consequence prevents the oxidative stress in normal cell [ 11 , 31 , 35 , 43 ]. But these compounds also can act as pro-oxidant agent and increase the ROS production in cancer cell [ 11 , 31 , 35 , 43 ]. Also, the intake of polyphenols and phenolic compounds has multiple protective functions against inflammation and tumorigenesis.
However, the success of the prevention and treatment also depends on the quality and quantity of bioactive compounds. But, more critical is the fact that the consumption and bioavailability of polyphenols are insufficiently studied to determine the efficacy for disease prevention or disease treatment [ 15 , 35 ].
From this, derive the relationship among bioactive compounds and the induction of apoptosis, anti-proliferation, antimetastasis and anti-angiogenesis [ 12 ]. Further information notices the interaction of the phenolic compound is involved with receptor or enzymes in signal transduction [ 31 ]. This interaction may downregulate or upregulate essential proteins in signalling pathways that control the biological process [ 35 ]. In addition to the antioxidant effects above mentioned, these bioactive compounds can induce two phases during ROS activation.
But, pro-oxidant activities mediated by polyphenols and phenolic compounds increase the ROS production. CTS induced apoptosis by downregulating the E6 and E7 viral oncogenes. CTS induced apoptosis by activating the extrinsic pathway in SiHa cervical cancer cells. Chlorogenic acid has been reported to have anticancer, antioxidant and antidiabetic effects. Also, galangin increased ROS, which induced the activation of cell death via various mechanisms including apoptosis or arrest of cell cycle [ 15 , 20 , 25 ].
Bruges reported that pyrogallol induced mitochondrial apoptotic response.
Mitochondrial pathway probably begins with the activation of BH3-only proteins. Last, in cytoplasm increasing cytochrome C level, this allows apoptosome formation and caspase-9 activations. In extrinsic apoptosis pathway, binding of the cell death ligands and cell death receptors activates caspase-8 and caspase-3 Figure 1 [ 35 , 45 ].
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Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 20 4 , Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 20, 4, , Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , ; 20 4 : Stylissa carteri, a marine sponge predominantly living in Indonesia territories, has not been extensively studied as anti-cancer. Therefore, this study targeted to assess the anti-tumor activity of the ethanol extract of S.
Methods: S. Spheroid growth assay and apoptosis assay were conducted in HCC cells. In addition, cell migration analysis and synergistic activity with doxorubicin or paclitaxel were conducted in MDA MB cells.
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This extract was subjected also for GC-MS analysis. Results: The results show that ethanol extract of S. Moreover, this extract inhibited spheroids growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. It inhibited cell migration and demonstrated a synergistic activity with doxorubicin or paclitaxel on triggering cell death in MDA MB cells. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that this extract contained 1,2-Benzenediol, Dibutyl phthalate and 9,Octadecadienoic acid, ethyl ester. Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate a potential anti-tumor activity of ethanol extract of S.
Related Bioactive Compounds and Cancer
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